[K&M] Chapter 0 Notes

expression: asks to compute something. yields result
expression contains operators and operands.

<<: is an example of operator
std::cout, "hello, world" are examples of operands.
each operands have types.

<< is left associative; means that it uses as much of the expression
as it can for the left operand.

std::endl is a manipulator.
manipulators: manipulates stream, does something other than writing
characters to it. In this case, ends current line of output.

The entire expression yields std::cout as its value. side effect is
writing “Hello world!” on the std output stream, and ends output line.

Scope: part of the program in which a name has meaning.
namespace: collection of related names. a standard library defines all names in namespace std.

The name std::cout is a qualified name, using the ‘::’ operator. aka
scope operator. left of ‘::’ is the name of scope; right of ‘::’ is
name within the scope. thus, std::cout means ‘name cout that is in namespace scope std’

curly braces are another type of scope.

0.8: details

C++ programs are usually free form; newlines and spaces have no
special meaning.
-string literals (enclosed in double quotes) may not span
-#include name must appear on a line by themselves (except for
-//comments ends at the end of the current line. but /* is free form.

Some string literals with backslash:
\n: newline
\t: tab
\b: backspace
\”: treats as part of string, not as string terminator
\’: treats as part of string. symbol, not terminator
\\: treats \ as a character.

Every name that a c++ program uses must have definition. Names must be defined before used, using #include.

Every C++ program must have a function named main that returns an int. 0 return indicates success. nonzero is failure. explicit 0 return
is not necessary, but is good practice.

Braces enclose a block: a request to execute the consituents in the
order in which they appear.
Semicolon at the end of a statement indicates an expression statement. this is a request to execute expression for side effects and discard its result. omitting it results in null statement, which has no effect.



$ g++ -Wall -o output foo.c


Exercise notes:

curly braces can group expressions together just within a function, without needing a separate function definition or something


using namespace std;

int main(){
  cout<<"level 1, statement 1!"<<endl;
    cout<<"level2, statement 1!"<<endl;
      cout<<"level3, statement1!\n";
      cout<<"level3, statement2!\n";
    cout<<"level2, statement 2!"<<endl;
  cout<<"level1, statement2!\n";
  return 0;

is a totally valid function that returns an output

level 1, statement 1!
level2, statement 1!
level3, statement1!
level3, statement2!
level2, statement 2!
level1, statement2!

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